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Would you like to see more personals? Free online dating for all ages and categories Retired men and women from South Africa - Whatsapp chat in South Africa - Caucasian singles from South Africa Registration is completely free and anonymous. Everyday over a ten thousand couples chat in real life with African singles they meet online. Though the support for the placement of Sorghum is not strong, all independent tree topologies SH-aLRT, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference agree on the topology and our placement of Sorghum as sister to the core Andropogoneae is consistent with the work of Hawkins et al.

This confirms the presence of reticulate evolution in the origins of Andropogoneae and casts doubt on many conclusions determined from chloroplast only datasets. Both chloroplastic genes failed IQ-Tree statistical testing for phylogenetic signal. Moreover, as the chloroplastic signal for many of the genera particularly Imperata and Sorghum differ compare: Estep et al. Broadly, timings are consistent with previous work Estep et al. As it is placed within Sarga, C.

Chronogram derived from the alignment of Andropogoneae ITS cassette sequences. The scale at the bottom represents millions of years before present. Numbers at nodes represent the age of that node as millions of years before present. The shaded region centered on Saccharum represents the 3. Imperata cylindrica, S. Three species from Sorghinae, namely C. In both cases, i. Prevalence or commonness of individuals based on herbarium specimens of Saccharum wild relatives in sugarcane cultivation areas. Calculation of scores was based on ranking the commonness of species from highest to lowest, with most common species scoring 11 and least common receiving 1.

Spatial overlap shared occurrence of Saccharum wild relatives based on herbarium specimens with sugarcane cultivation areas QDS. Calculation of scores was based on ranking species occurrences from highest to lowest, with highest ranked species being scored 11 and lowest scoring 1. These species can therefore not be considered as common weeds of sugarcane plantations besides the prevalence and spatial overlap with some sugarcane QDS.

Imperata cylindrica also ranked high, indicating its ability to colozise sugarcane fields. Both I. Proximity or closeness of Saccharum wild relatives based on herbarium specimens, field observations and literature to sugarcane fields in cultivation areas. Calculation of scores was based on ranking species proximity to fields from highest to lowest, with highest ranked species being scored A score of 0 was given when no records could be found and therefore proximity data is not currently known absence equates to no ranking.

Imperata cylindrica, M. These networks present a higher likelihood for these species to spread into and within sugar cultivation areas compared with species that have fewer distribution networks. Species that are in isolated QDS and that are normally restricted to certain locations will also lack these distribution networks. Distribution potential of Saccharum wild relatives based on road and railway networks in sugarcane cultivation areas. Calculation of scores was based on ranking species from highest to lowest using the number of roads and railways present in the grids of wild relatives, and scoring the largest network as 11 and the smallest 1.

Imperata cylindrica scored the highest during the spatial and temporal assessment, followed by S. However, based on the relatedness assessment, I. Although S. Species with low scores are not considered to present any likelihood for gene flow, especially if these species have diverged from Saccharum at more than 7.

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Gene flow likelihood score was calculated by weighting the spatial, temporal, and relatedness assessments at Spatial, temporal and relatedness assessment indicating the levels of likelihood for gene flow to occur between sugarcane and wild relatives in the sugar production region of South Africa. QDS with sugarcane plantations are indicated with bold lines, whereas other QDS of the study area without sugarcane plantations are not shown with bold lines.


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Likelihood for gene flow: Sorghastrum nudipes scored 6 and there was no sugarcane QDS containing only this wild relative species. QDS with sugarcane plantations without wild relatives 0—12 ; sugarcane QDS plantations with wild relatives: very low 13—43 ; low ; high 87— ; very high — Closely related species with high spatial congruity pose the highest likelihood for gene flow and certain areas can be flagged where this is the case.

Several studies have assessed the potential hybridization between plants and their closest relatives in GM scenarios Ellstrand et al. Our study was designed to consider these factors in a South African context. A review by Ellstrand et al. Commercial sugarcane cultivars have not been reported to spontaneously hybridize with any related genera and in the two published reviews that assessed the likelihood of GM sugarcane outcrossing with wild species there was no evidence of natural hybridization Bonnett et al.

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Imperata, Sorghum, Narenga , and Zea are genera found in South Africa that have been artificially crossed with sugarcane, and evidence of introgression has been confirmed on a molecular level except in Imperata Bonnett et al. It was evident that sugarcane has a considerably low success of producing hybrids compared with its progenitors i. Cheavegatti-Gianotto et al. Although the spatial assessment, both prevalence and spatial overlap, confirmed that I.

The same is true for genus Tripidium Asiatic species. We also place Sorghum as sister to the core Andropogoneae as has also been reported by Hawkins et al.


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This means that Sorghum is over 11 million years distant from Saccharum ; well outside the natural hybridization window. Polytrias indica and M. Sarga is sister to the core Saccharinae, but this is essentially an Asiatic genus; the one exception being C. However, with a base chromosomal number of 9 Celarier, , Cleistachne is unlikely to be karyotypically compatible with sugarcane. Miscanthus and Polytoca , which are sister to Saccharum are Asiatic species as well. The next grouping, which is directly sister to Saccharum sensu stricto includes the African Miscanthidium species as well as Narenga porphyrocoma , which is mainly Asiatic, but has a rump population in Ethiopia.

In an African context, at least in terms of evolutionary distance, these are the species most likely to hybridize with Saccharum. Narenga—Saccharum hybrids have been generated in breeding programmes, but they tend to be male sterile and suffer chromosomal loss in the F2 generation Price, Chloroplast data D Lloyd Evans, personal communication indicates that Narenga hybridized with Saccharum more recently than Miscanthidium , and thus may contain more compatible chromosomes. Miscanthidium species have a base chromosome number of 15 and show no recent hybridization with sugarcane the two genera have been isolated for at least 2.

Thus it is likely that Miscanthidium and Saccharum are not chromosomally compatible.

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As an Asiatic and Ethiopian species, S. As sugarcane hybrids are based on a small number of inter-related parental lines, it is hardly surprising that these cultivars could not be resolved in the ITS phylogeny and the ITS cassette itself does not possess sufficient characters to resolve recently diverged species or cultivars. However, we see that the two S. This is not unexpected as S. As a grouping, S. Few genera lie within the 3.

Even if this window is extended to 7. All members of Sorghum including Trachypogon spicatus can be excluded as they are The same applies to I. Interestingly, the chronogram places Tripidium species which sugarcane breeders have been attempting to introgress into Saccharum hybrid cultivars for over 50 years with poor success as The Southern African species, C.

However, this species poses low risk of hybridization as it lies outside the wild hybridization window. The only species of high concern in terms of divergence times from Saccharum are those within the genus Miscanthidium , most especially M. Even though no similar studies conducted field assessments across the sugarcane cultivation regions in South Africa, sugarcane seldom produces viable pollen under natural conditions at Mount Edgecombe site 8 Brett, ; Horsley and Zhou, Within certain study sites e.

Pollen viability has also been closely associated with genotype Nair, ; Pagliarini, ; Melloni et al. There is a higher likelihood for gene flow when potential pollen recipients flower at the same time as donor crop species when they are in close proximity Ellstrand et al. In the current study, there is only one related species with flower synchrony and shared habitat, M. Although, as discussed previously, all verified hybrids between sugarcane and numerous species within the Andropogoneae have been created through human mediation. Moreover, in all cases hybrids are typically male sterile Bremer, ; Kandasami, ; Aitken et al.

Thus no sugarcane hybrid reported thus far is a true hybrid, they are always intergeneric partial hybrids. Whilst there are reports of possible hybridizations between Saccharum species and related species in the wild, there have been no reports of wild hybridizations with modern hybrid sugarcane cultivars Cheavegatti-Gianotto et al.

Again this is an issue of chromosomal compatibility. As a consequence, chromosomal incompatibility is far more likely between modern commercial sugarcane hybrids and wild species than between sugarcane's ancestors and wild species. Indeed, even back crosses of commercial hybrids with their immediate ancestors S.

For crosses between sugarcane hybrid and wild species of low ploidy, not only is there an issue of chromosome incompatibility due to evolutionary distance, there is the added problem of lack of meiotic pairing due to differential chromosome numbers.