Diamond dating in Barberton South Africa
Coal mine waters in South Africa : their geochemistry, quality and classification. A comparative geological study of some major kimberlite pipes in the Northern Cape and Orange Free State. Author: Clement, Cameron Roger Date: In the first part of this thesis the petrological status of 'kimberlite' is defined and mineralogical and textural classifications which allow systematic documentation and collation of these complex rocks are evaluated.
Quantitative mineralogical A comparative study of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks from the western Namaqualand metamorphic complex.
HISTORY OF DIAMONDS IN SOUTH AFRICA
Author: Moore, John Michael Date: A regional study of highly metamorphosed supracrustal rocks was undertaken in the western portions of the Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. The study area was essentially restricted to a north-south section some 50 kilometres wide and A comparative study of the geohydrology of archaean formations and associated rocks in the North-Western Transvaal and the North-Western Cape Province.
In the Transvaal the Archaean Formations range from the Swaziland Cratonic eclogite xenoliths - formation and evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Author: Radu, Ioana-Bogdana Date: The most extensive evidence for the evolution of the primitive crust is preserved at the base of the continental roots to km depth. However, this is completely inaccessible and hard to evaluate, except through the study of mantle Crustal deformation and geodetic site stability determination using GPS.
Depositional processes in Saldanha Bay and Langebaan Lagoon.
On the basis of detailed textural investigations the depositional history of the study area has been established. The sediments in the bay and Determining the physico-chemical conditions on the early earth : Barberton scientific drilling project, South Africa. Author: Grosch, Eugene Gerald Date: Low-grade metabasites and hydrothermally altered ultramafic rocks comprise most of the ca. However, PT-constraints and detailed petrological information on the variably Diamonds and related minerals from the Dokolwayo Kimberlite, Kingdom of Swaziland. Author: Daniels, L R M Date: Several physical characteristics, the carbon isotopic compositions, inclusion mineralogy, and distribution of the Dokolwayo diamonds were investigated.
A representative suite of concentrate garnet megacrysts and macrocrysts were analyzed for Author: Otter, Marshall Lorrence Date: The Sloan diamonds were investigated for their physical characteristics, inclusion mineralogy and composition, and carbon isotope composition. The relationships between these features are described and interpreted with respect to diamond Distribution and causes of high fluoride groundwater in the western Bushveld area of South Africa.
It was hypothesised that fluoride in groundwater originated from the dissolution of Economic geology of the refractory clays in the Union of South Africa with particular reference to the Transvaal deposits. Author: Warde, John M ; Warde, John M Date: The purpose of this thesis is to describe the occurrence, nature, properties, and utilization of the refractory clays in South Africa with particular reference to the Transvaal deposits, focusing on those characteristics which may be of direct The gold in the Witwatersrand Basin area was deposited in ancient river deltas , having been washed down from surrounding gold-rich greenstone belts to the north and west.
Mining industry of South Africa - Wikipedia
Rhenium - osmium isotope studies indicates that the gold in those mineral deposits came from unusual three billion year old mantle sourced intrusions known as komatiites present in the edenvale belts. Ever since the Kimberley diamond strike of , South Africa has been a world leader in diamond production. This figure includes both gem stones and industrial diamonds. South Africa produces more platinum and similar metals than any other nation.
Chromium is another leading product of South Africa's mining industry. The metal, used in stainless steel and for a variety of industrial applications, is mined at 10 sites around the country. South Africa has the second-largest reserves of uranium in the world. Uranium is more easily and readily available than gold in South Africa.
There are a number of mining companies that process uranium from mines that they own. Though uranium production in South Africa showed a decrease from t in to t in , in t were produced with a forecast of 2,t by Conditions on most South African mines are very similar to those elsewhere  except for the gold mines where the low geothermal gradient, i.
Silica dust is an ever-present potential hazard so that all drilling dust and loose rock has to be wetted down at all times to prevent silicosis, a lethal disease that attacks the lungs. Another serious problem is that of heat. In the deeper mines refrigeration of the intake air is often necessary to keep conditions tolerable and this is now becoming necessary on some platinum mines which, although shallower, have a higher geothermal gradient.
The South African mining industry is frequently criticized for its poor safety record and high number of fatalities but conditions are improving. Total fatalities were in and had fallen to in The gold mining rate was 0. For comparison, the rate in the Sixties was around 1. The reason for the difference is quite clear; the gold mines are much deeper and conditions are both more difficult and dangerous than on the shallower platinum mines.
Falls of ground dominated the causes at 72, machinery, transportation and mining accidents caused 70 and the remainder were classed as general. Amongst the machinery, mining and transportation fatalities were working on grizzlies [ clarification needed ] without safety belts, working below loose rock in ore passes, getting crushed by that deadly combination of a loco and a ventilation door frame the clearance between the two is only a few inches and working on running conveyors, all direct contraventions of safety instructions. Drilling into misfires was also mentioned, a clear example of sloppy and unsafe mining.
Barberton Google Satellite Map
It is difficult to see how falls of ground can be eliminated given their frequent unpredictability, which is increasing with depth, and the difficulties in providing continuous roof support as on longwall coal mines due to the violence of a face blast in the hard rock of the gold mines but clearly much can be done to improve training and to instill a sense of safe working practice in the miners, many of whom are relatively inexperienced.
Mine safety received considerable publicity in , particularly after 3, workers were temporarily trapped underground at the Elandskraal mine after a compressed air pipe ruptured due to internal corrosion, broke loose and fell into the man-hoisting shaft. The workers were eventually rescued through the rock hoisting shaft after the blasting smoke had cleared.
The incident caused South African President Thabo Mbeki to mandate full safety audits for all operating mines. This audit has caused additional facilities to shut down temporarily, including the nation's largest gold mine located at Driefontein. In the South African National Union of Mineworkers, which represents the nation's mineworkers, engaged in a series of talks with the Chamber of Mines , an industry group. The meetings also saw the participation of the Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration, a body with mediation authority over the dispute.
On 27 November , the National Union of Mineworkers announced that South African mineworkers would go on strike to protest at unsafe working conditions. The Lonmin strike was a strike in August in the Marikana area, close to Rustenburg , South Africa at a mine owned by Lonmin one of the world's largest primary producers of platinum group metals PGMs.
A series of violent confrontations occurred between platinum mine workers on strike and the South African Police Service on Thursday, 16 August , and resulted in the deaths of 34 individuals 30 were miners and 4 protesters , as well as the injury of an additional 78 miners. Occurring in the post- apartheid era, it was the deadliest incident of violence between police and the civilian population in South Africa since the Sharpeville Massacre which prompted South African President Jacob Zuma to set up an investigation.
Gordon Farlam was appointed as the chairperson of a committee. Ramaphosa also accepted to the commission that massacre could have been avoided if proper precautionary actions had been taken. Jacob Zuma declared a day-long week of mourning. In , platinum industry workers went on a strike that lasted five months. It was the longest strike in the history of South African mining. In , a high court in Johannesburg approved the historic compensation deal for the miners who contracted the fatal silicosis disease when they worked in the mines.
There were few parties that advocate to nationalizing the industry, the most major one is Economic Freedom Fighters EFF that was founded on , and by elections became the third-largest party in South Africa.
- Earth’s deep geochemical cycles.
- Location and geology.
The others are:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Economist. Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 4 January Business Day Johannesburg. United States Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 28 November Retrieved 27 November RT International. Retrieved 13 July Creamer Media's Mining Weekly Online.
Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved Princeton Weekly Bulletin.